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In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Karachi was rocked by political and conflict, while crime rates drastically increased with the arrival of weaponry from the War in Afghanistan . [44] Conflict between the MQM party , and ethnic Sindhis , Pashtuns , and Punjabis was sharp. The party and its vast network of supporters were targeted by Pakistani security forces as part of the controversial Operation Clean-up in 1992 – an effort to restore peace in the city that lasted until 1994. [65] Anti-Hindu riots also broke out in Karachi in 1992 in retaliation for the demolition of the Babri Mosque in India by a group of Hindu nationalists earlier that year. [66] Karachi had become widely known for its high rates of violent crime, but recorded crimes sharply decreased following a controversial crackdown operation against criminals, the MQM party, and Islamist militants initiated in 2013 by the Pakistan Rangers . [45]

A Statistical Account of Bengal, Vol-VI by W. W. Hunter, the then Director General of Statistics to the Govt. of India published in 1876 is the second book containing information regarding the Chakmas. Though most of the description regarding history, society, religion and customs of the Chakmas in this book were quoted from  The Chittagong Hill Tracts and Dwellers Therein by T. H. Lewin , it contains a detailed picture of CHTs from the economic perspective. It also traces the changing mood of social and administrative set-ups due to squabble between Kalindi Ranee and other Ranees on the claim of the throne, increasing influences of the British authorities, encouragement of settlement of Tripuris and Gorkhas by the Britishers to prevent Lushai raids, establishment of Schools at Rangamati, Maniksury and Chandraghona, discouraging jum cultivation by forming Reserved Forests and Khas Mahal and encouraging plough cultivation to increase tax collection. This book is also the oldest record describing the border between the CHTs and the Lushai Hills.

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